On January 14, 2012, China Meteorological Administration (CMA) issued the China Climate Bulletin in 2012. According to Bulletin, the general characteristic of China climate in 2012 was wet with near normal (the average of 1981-2010) temperature. However the regional and period meteorological hazards were serious and frequent.
In 2012, the annual precipitation was above normal and the mean temperature was near normal in China both with severely uneven distribution in time-space and intra-seasonal variability. The mean of annual total precipitation in China was 669.3 mm, 6.3% more than normal and 20.4% more than 2011. The total precipitation was less than normal in winter, but much more in spring, summer and autumn consecutively in China. The annual mean temperature was 9.4℃ , which was near and slightly below normal (with -0.2℃ anomaly) but 0.3℃ less than 2011. The mean temperature was lower than normal in winter and autumn, but higher than normal persistently in spring and summer in China.
In 2012, the summer came earlier than normal with stronger East Asian monsoon and the rain belt lay much north than normal during the flood season. The first rainy season in South China began earlier and ended later with a larger quantity of rain than normal. The beginning of Mei-Yu in the middle and low reaches of Yangtze River basin started later and ended earlier with less precipitation than normal. The total precipitation was obviously above normal during rainy season in North China and the autumnal rain of Huaxi (Western China) was less than normal. The rainy season in Southwest China started earlier and ended later than normal with a small amount of precipitation. From the regional point of view, the total annual precipitation in Northeast China, North China, the middle and low reaches of Yangtze River basin, Northwest China and South China were 31.5%, 27.4%, 12.7%, 10.0% and 9.7% more than normal respectively. In which, the precipitation of Northeast China was the most in 62 years and it was the most in 35 years in North China, Beijing and Tianjin as well. The annual precipitation of Liaohe, Haihe, Songhuajiang, Yellow River, Yangtze River and Zhujiang River basin were more than normal, in which it was the most in 22 years in Haihe River. The annual precipitation of Huaihe River was much less than normal.
In 2012, the meteorological hazards in China were of varied types which influenced seriously in regional areas. There were many rainstorm processes which caused regional, flash flood and serious geological hazards. The obvious flood situations appeared successively in Yangtze River basin, Yellow River basin, Haihe River basin, etc. The flash floods and geological hazards occurred in some areas of Beijing, Gansu, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou, Ningxia, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. The landing time of typhoons was concentrated and the affected region was wide.“ DAMREY”,“ SAOLA” and“ HAIKUI” landed China in a raw during one week at the beginning of August, which affected 15 provinces (or autonomous regions and municipalities). Regional and period low temperature, overcast and rainy weather happened frequently, which influenced severely on agriculture. A wide range of snowstorm weather appeared in northern China for three times from November to December while some areas were attacked by snow hazards.
According to preliminary statistics, there were the direct economic losses caused by meteorological hazards exceeding 335.8 billion RMB Yuan which was higher than the average of 1990-2011. Both 1390people of mortalities and missing and 249,600 km2 hazard areas were less than the average of 1990-2011. In general, 2012 was a year with less meteorological disasters. (Jan. 14)
Source: National Climate Centre
Editor Zhang Yong