31-07-2008 Source:China Meteorological News Press

China Meteorological Administration (CMA) has been a public service agency, which is directly affiliated to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. At the time of its establishment in December 1949, it was the Central Military Commission Meteorological Bureau - the predecessor of CMA. Since 1994 when CMA was transformed from a subordinate governmental body into one of the public service agencies under the State Council, with the authorization by the State Council, CMA has been responsible for organizational and operational management of the national meteorological services as a whole. Under CMA's unified directives, all meteorological establishments within CMA framework follow the administrative system of hierarchical management and the dual leaderships performed by both CMA and local governments with the former as the core. By pursuing the concepts of "public meteorology, security-oriented meteorology and natural resource-oriented meteorology", and by adhering to objectives of "taking the people as our fundamental interests, being thoughtful, considerate and ready for serving any customers anywhere at any time", the meteorological services in China, which are based on sciences and technologies, fall into a category of basic public welfare services. Since the Meteorological Law of the People's Republic of China came into force as from 1 January 2000, the other legal or regulatory instruments have been promulgated for implementations, including the Regulations for Weather Modification Management, the Rules for Protection of Meteorological Observation Conditions and Facilities, the Rules for Lightning Disaster Prevention and Reduction Management, and the Rules for Balloon-release Management, etc. 


An integrated atmospheric observation system has been set up in China, incorporating sky-, space- and ground-based subsystems, covering relatively complete weather elements, including geographically balanced station sites. CMA's meteorological service system consists of weather forecast, climate prediction, weather modification, drought and flood monitoring and forecasting, thunderstorm and Lightning prevention, agro-meteorology and eco-meteorology, climate resource exploitation, etc. CMA's services cover multiple sectors or agencies, e.g. industries, agriculture, fishery, commercial business, energy, transportation, building industry, water conservancy, land and natural resources, oceanography, salt-making industry, environment protection, tourism, aviation, telecommunication, insurance industry, fire control, etc. In recent years, along with the scientific and technological development and socio-economic growth, the meteorological service has been expanded to cover other areas such as atmospheric composition analysis and warnings, space meteorology, sand/dust storm monitoring and forecasting, lightning device testing and designing, health meteorology, emergency response to unexpected public events, to cite a few. Up to now, the meteorological services have covered almost all sectors of national economies, social communities and national securities. The social and economic benefits obtained from the meteorological services could be reflected by the ratio of the input in meteorological services to their output, i.e. 1 to 40.


A research network for basic meteorological science and technology, high-tech research and application research has been established in China. CMA has the following 9 meteorological research institutions:

    l Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences;

    l Research Institute of Urban Meteorology, Beijing;

    l Research Institute of Atmospheric Environment, Shenyang;

    l Research Institute of Heavy Rain, Wuhan;

    l Shanghai Typhoon Institute;

    l Research Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Guangzhou;

    l Research Institute of Plateau Meteorology, Chengdu;

    l Research Institute of Arid Meteorology, Lanzhou;

    l Research Institute of Desert Meteorology, Urumuqi.


CMA created the National Key Laboratory for Disastrous Weather in 2004 with approval of the Ministry of Sciences and Technology. CMA is among the first group of research institutions in China, which have been restructured to conduct public welfare-oriented research. CMA’s research bodies have all passed the national acceptance procedure after restructuring, thus a new system for scientific and technological innovations in meteorology is in good shape. CMA is a leading body in China for activities with regard to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), having conducted a series of researches on climate change, its impacts and response strategies.


China follows the diplomatic policy of independence and self-governance, and CMA works for implementation of the state political, economic, scientific and technological as well as diplomatic strategies, and CMA conducts actively multilateral and bilateral cooperation with international organizations, countries and regions. CMA has been in bilateral cooperation and exchanges in the field of meteorology with over 160 countries and regions. CMA has singed agreements on cooperation in meteorological sciences and technology with 21 countries, and it has provided over 70 developing countries with equipments and technical assistance. Over 350 directors or senior management staff of the National Meteorological Services from over 120 countries and regions visited China. China is a member state of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). All CMA Administrators served as a member of the Executive Council (EC) of WMO since 1973, and Dr. Zheng Guoguang  still serves as an EC member. Mr. Zou Jingmeng, the former Administrator of CMA was elected as the Second Vice President of WMO in 1983 and President in 1987. Mr. Zou renewed his term of office as President of WMO in 1991. A CMA official was elected the Assistant Secretary-General of WMO in 2001 and Deputy Secretary-General of WMO in 2004. The National Meteorological Center of CMA is one of the regional specialized meteorological centers within WMO framework, which is responsible for the weather forecasting service in Asia and Pacific region. The National Meteorological Information Center of CMA is one of the Regional Telecommunication Hubs (RTH) of the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of WMO, involving in the global exchanges of meteorological data. Since 1980s, China has been actively involving in international activities on global warming and climate change. Chinese scientists have acted as the Co-chair, Working Group I of IPCC for a long time, playing an important role in promoting studies on climate change and sustainable development for mankind. In addition, Chinese scientists have participated actively activities in framework of WMO and Typhoon Committee as well as related international research programmes.


2. The Organizational Structure and Main Responsibilities

    The interior administrative structure of CMA is as follows:

    l General Office;

    l Department of Emergency Response, Disaster Mitigation and Public Services;

    l Department of Forecasting and Information System

    l Department of Integrated Observations

    l Department of Science & Technology and Climate Change

    l Department of Planning and Finance

    l Department of Human Resources

    l Department of Policy and Regulations;


    l Department of International Cooperation


    l CPC Committee of CMA Headquarters


    l Discipline Inspection Office

    l Office for Retired Personnel

The main responsibilities of CMA are as follows:


(1) Formulating policies, legal and regulatory frameworks, development strategies and long-term plans governing meteorological services; formulating and issuing rules and regulations, technical standards and practices governing meteorological services, and supervising their execution; undertaking relevant administrative reviews.


(2) Participating in the central government decision-making process in case of meteorological disasters; organizing a joint trans-regional and trans-departmental preparedness campaign to combat high-impact severe weather events; organizing and guiding the preparedness against lightning-induced disasters, heavy fog and other weather-related disastrous events; and being responsible for weather modification operation management.


(3) Overseeing meteorological setups located in other sectors from trade perspective; planning the meteorological observation and information networks, weather stations and offices, infrastructure and equipment over land and sea area of the nation; and reviewing major project proposals and options.


(4) Managing the national weather forecast and warning, short-range climate prediction, urban environment-oriented meteorological forecast, fire risk grading weather forecast as well as the issuance of climate impact outlook; organizing and guide the exploitation and conservation of climatic resources; organizing the assessments and inspections on state major construction projects, regional economic development projects and urban and rural planning.


(5) Organizing meteorological research projects, and widely applying the proven research findings to meteorological operations; guiding and coordinating meteorological education, training, outreach; and increasing public awareness of meteorological disaster preparedness and mitigation, as well as of climate resource exploitation.


(6) Managing international cooperative affairs; participating in activities of the World Meteorological Organization and other international meteorological bodies on behalf of the Chinese government; and carrying out cooperation and exchanges with the counterparts of other countries or regions.


(7) Providing leadership for the meteorological establishments nationwide; managing the meteorological bureaus at provincial level in terms of planning and finance, organizational structures, personnel and labour, research and education and operational development; and guiding the development of local meteorological service.


 (8) Assisting local governments in promoting ideological development and cultural activities oriented to local meteorological staffs.


(9) Handling any other tasks assigned by the State Council. 


 The main subordinate bodies under CMA include:

    l National Meteorological Centre (the Central Meteorological Observatory);

    l National Satellite Meteorological Centre (National Centre for Space Weather Monitoring and Warning);

    l National Climate Centre;

    l National Meteorological Information Centre;

    l Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences;

    l Meteorological Observation Centre;

    l China Meteorological Administration Training Centre;

    l Department of Capital Construction & Real Estate Management;

    l Logistic Service Centre;

    l Public Weather Service Center;

    l China Meteorological News Press, and Meteorological Press.


Meteorological bureaus are established in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (excluding meteorological services at Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan), 14 meteorological bureaus at sub-provincial cities (including 4 cities which have been specifically designated in the state development plan), 318 meteorological bureaus at prefecture level and 2,300 bureaus (stations) at county level.


CMA is employing 52,988 staff members, out of which 6 are Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences or the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 26 are entitled with PH.D tutors, and 4,415 area warded senior professional titles.

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