2018 National Day for Disaster Preparedness and Reduction

12-05-2018Source:China Meteorologica News Press

The theme of the tenth National Day for Disaster Preparedness and Reduction (May 12) in 2018 is “Take Action, Reduce the risk of disasters around us”. Chinese meteorological departments spearheaded by CMA is harnessing modern science and technology, reinforcing collaboration with related sectors, building a safer society through improved forecast, risk management, cross-sector linkage mechanism, and enhanced capabilities in rural areas.

The number of deaths caused by meteorological disasters has dropped from an average of 2,956 people in the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period (year of 2006 to 2010) to 1,293 people in the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan"((year of 2011 to 2015). The proportion of disaster losses to GDP has dropped from 1.02% to 0.59%.

Meteorological disaster prevention, reduction and relief system

The meteorological disaster prevention, reduction and relief system in the new era consists of the "five major systems", in terms of meteorological disaster monitoring, forecasting and warning system, the emergency warning information release system, the meteorological disaster risk prevention system, the organization and responsibility system, and the regulations and standards system. Based on the five major systems, meteorological departments will carry out “Seven Actions”, including the urban, rural and marine meteorological disaster prevention, reduction and relief, the key regional demonstration program on disaster prevention and reduction, emergency warning information dissemination, weather modification and science outreach.

CMA has actively carried out Meteorological Disaster Defense Regulation, National Meteorological Disaster Defense Plan (2009-2020), Opinions on Strengthening Meteorological Disaster Monitoring, Early Warning and Information Release and other laws and regulations. Two-thirds of the counties introduced the meteorological disaster prevention plans, and more than 60% of townships (streets) have brought meteorological disaster prevention and public weather services into government duties.

Warning information releasing

Before meteorological disasters occur, meteorological departments at all levels play the role of "message trees", issuing early warning information, and providing decision-making services for the government. Government deployed defense measures based on weather information. CMA has established the inter-ministry meeting mechanism for meteorological disaster early warning, and launched the inter-ministry coordination platform. At the grass-roots level, a team of 780,000 meteorological messengers was established to transmit weather warning information to the “last mile”.

In May of 2015, the national early warning information releasing center for emergencies was established; as well as the early warning information releasing system was put into operation. So far, there are 1 national-level, 31 provincial-level, 342 prefecture-level management platform and 2015 county-level warning information releasing terminals, which collet more than 70 kinds of warning information from 16 sectors. The coverage rate of public warning information reached 85%, and the time of the warning information was shortened to 5-8 minutes from the production completion to the release. (More details: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/news/Features/201605/t20160527_312504.html)

Meteorological science popularization to the public

In the annual World Meteorological Day, China’s national day for disaster prevention and reduction, flood season and other important periods and occasions, the meteorological departments carry out widespread, popular science activities to increase the public awareness of disaster prevention and reduction. (More details: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/20150311/20180323/)

Improving scientific and technological capabilities

Flood season is always characterized by high impact and disastrous weather events, threatening people’s life and property. Tracking the weather and making accurate forecast and early warning are significant for people to prepare for the severe weather. In this regard, CMA has never stopped improving its technologies.

FY series meteorological satellites: Since 1988, China has successfully launched 16 meteorological satellites that fall into the FY family. China is among a few countries in the world which are simultaneously operating both geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. All FY meteorological satellites have been put into operation.

FY-4A, the most advanced one, has been in operation, the data of which are open to the world and the services of which are available to this region.    (More details http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/20150311/20170720/index.html)

FY series meteorological satellites are playing an important role in weather forecasts, climate predictions, and eco-environment and natural disaster monitoring, etc., and they have been widely used in marine activities, agriculture, forestry, water resource, civil aviation, ocean navigation, and environment protection. The ground application system for FY satellites consists of the Beijing Data Processing Centre, 5 ground receiving stations (i.e. at Beijing, Guangzhou, Urumqi, Jiamusi in China, and Kiruna in Sweden), and many User Service Stations across the country. It receives and processes remote-sensing data from more than 10 domestic and foreign satellites on a routine basis, generating nearly a hundred satellite products that are tailored to the needs of different users each day. Taking advantage of a geostationary satellite in all-weather observation, since 2012, China has operated additional and flexible intensive satellite observation at an interval of no more than 6 minutes.

Roadmap of FY satellites

On April 24, 2018, CMA released the Emergency Support Mechanism for International Users of FengYun Meteorological Satellites in Disaster Prevention and Mitigation. When suffering from meteorological disasters such as typhoons, rainstorms, severe convections, forest and grassland fires, sandstorms, the countries along the “Belt and Road” may apply for initiating the Mechanism to get high-frequency cloud images and quantitative products from FY satellites.

Furthermore, China boasts an integrated observation system comprising 198 weather radars, and over 2500 national-level terrestrial and marine observing stations.

GRAPES_GFS V2.0, the new generation of Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction Enhanced System which is independently developed by CMA, has been put into formal operation. Since that day, all provincial, regional and municipal meteorological services can receive products of GRAPES_GFS V2.0 through CMACast system and provide utilization for users by CIMISS. (More details: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/news/Features/201610/t20161021_339109.html)

Progress of GRAPES

MICAPS4.0, the fourth generation of Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System, has been put into operation in whole Chinese meteorological departments for a long time. The matched distributed data storage system based on CIMISS, China Integrated Meteorological Information Sharing System, was popularized. MICAPS 4.0 firstly integrates ensemble forecast and grid forecast to improve meteorological data-access and application capabilities. (More details: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/20150311/20160615/index.html)

GRAPES relative humidity forecast in MICAPS 4.0

Smart grid forecast: The spatial resolution of this network reaches 5km×5km, enabling 10-day weather forecast every 3 hour. The public can get their hands on refined location-based meteorological service at any time, signifying that weather forecast can make the transition from site forecast to grid forecast. Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Shaanxi have official issued smart grid forecast since July, 2017. (More details:http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/20150311/20170728/index.html)

National level smart grid forecast: 18 meteorological elements, 4 categories

International disasters mitigation and prevention

CMA hosts 18 WMO centres, such as the World Meteorological Center, the Global Information System Center, the Center for Extreme Events Monitoring in Asia, etc.

GMAS-A: WMO Global Multi-Hazard Alert System-Asia (GMAS-A)

In the sixteenth session of WMO Regional Association for Asia (RA II), February, 2017, the countries of Asian region supported the “Pilot Project to Enhance the Capability of Meteorological Disaster Risk Reduction in Regional Association II (Asia)”, which was jointly proposed by CMA and Hong Kong Observatory (HKO). This project will establish the alert hub of WMO Global Multi-Hazard Alert System (for short: GMAS-A). Regional joint monitoring and warning of the meteorological disaster will be developed based on CMA’s efforts in FY satellite data and product sharing and application, equipment and technical assistance, NWP, training and service website, to foster political communication, facility connectivity and mutual understanding among the participating countries in meteorological field.

Editor Hao Jing