Introduction of Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

17-07-2019Source:China Meteorological News Press

Recently, China Meteorological Administration (CMA) has unveiled the list of 24 national climate observatories. National climate observatory is the national-level integrated ground meteorological observation station conducting long-term, continuous, and three-dimensional observation of myriad layers and interactions of the climate system.

Shouxian National Climatological Observatory Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

Adding this batch of observatories will be conducive to elevating integrated observation capacities of the climate system, and provide support for the whole nation in responding to climate change, harnessing climate resources, and serving ecological civilization construction, and the socio-economic development.

The Observatory Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

According to Mr. Huang Yong, Director of Shouxian National Climatological Observatory, Shouxian County bears witness to major weather systems in China, which has provided benign natural conditions for climate change observation.

Shouxian National Climatological Observatory is one of the five pilot observatories in China and is under the framework of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP).

Aerial photo of the Observatory Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

Shouxian meteorological station was set up in 1955, making the transition from national fundamental station, benchmark climate station, to national climate observatory. Currently, the observatory has 5 observation systems, namely, ground observation system, upper-air observation system, atmospheric component observation system, land variable observation system, and flux observation system, which accurately record weather evolution and climate change, and provide accurate meteorological monitoring information for regional meteorological disaster prevention and scientific agricultural production.

The Observatory has boasted remarkable achievements in continuous observation, accumulating about 60-year observation information and long-term, continuous, and stable land surface parameters, as well as ground-atmospheric flux and atmospheric conditions, introduced by Mr. Huang.

Panoramic view of the Observatory Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

Entering the Observatory, a landmark observation instrument emerges, namely, the 32-meter 5-storey flux tower. This tower, together with instruments like three-dimensional supersonic anemometer, temperature and humidity sensor, wind direction and speed sensor, radiation sensor, infrared surface thermometer, RTD ground temperature sensor, soil moisture sensor, constitute flux observation system, conducts boundary layer atmospheric parameters and ground-atmospheric flux observation.

Fixed weather radar Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

One of the significances of flux observation lies in providing fact-based evidence for getting scientific insight into the carbon cycle process of typical agricultural ecological system in monsoon regions of East China. Through analyzing continuous observation data of the observatory, Anhui provincial climate center has demonstrated that agricultural ecological system can somewhat alleviates the greenhouse effect triggered by atmospheric carbon dioxide, which bears vital significance to long term agricultural development in Jianghuai Region. Right now, 10 year consecutive flux observation has scored operational results and incorporated into annual edition of Blue Paper of Climate Change in China.

All-sky imager Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

In the upper air observation fields, various observation instruments are installed, which include microwave radiometer, HMBQ, precipitation radar, wind profiler radar. These instruments are mainly applied in conducting long-term, continuous and stable regional observation of vertical profiles of meteorological factors like temperature, humidity, cloud, rain or wind in the atmospheric column. These instruments are also instrumental in mastering fundamental information of regional atmospheric status, learning of the reason and rule behind regional weather and climate events, and providing reliable observation data for studying climate and climate change.


Modernized computer room Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

In the atmospheric component observation chamber, a set of automatic monitoring system of air quality is operating, which can explicitly display PM2.5 and PM10 data. Currently, the system is predominantly conducting observation of atmospheric components like greenhouse gas, ozone, reactant gas and aerosol. In the next step, it will provide real-time monitoring information of more kinds of atmospheric components.

As early as 1998, major fundamental research project of National Natural Science Fund, experiment and research of energy and hydrological cycle in Huaihe River Basin cooperated by China and Japan conducted observation of ground-atmospheric flux, ground surface processes, and mesoscale convective system.

Meteorological radar instrument Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory

In the operational adjustments of national ground observation in 2012, Shouxian County, as one of the 8 national climate observatories in China, conducts daily continuous artificial observation, maintains long-term manual observation task, in a bid to sustain the duration of observation approaches and methods.

Through open cooperation, the observatory has provided data sharing service for over 10 national-level scientific research projects. It has also enriched the observation contents of the observatory on the strength of experiment instruments of institutions of higher education and scientific research institutes.

Atmospheric component observation chamber Credits:Shouxian National Climatological Observatory 

In the future, the observatory will gradually form the integrated climate observation system with myriad kinds of sounding approaches complementing one other, and provide fundamental data and services for weather, climate, climate change analysis, and prediction.(July,18)

Editor:Liu Shuqiao