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CMA released China Climate Bulletin of 2018 and Greenhouse Gas Bulletin of 2017

22-01-2019Source:China Meteorological Administration

On January 22, China Meteorological Administration (CMA) issued China Climate Bulletin and 2017 Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.

In 2018, both China’s annual mean air temperature and precipitation were above normal. Typhoon and low temperature freezing damage losses were heavy, while disasters of rainstorms, floods, droughts, severe convection, dust storms and others were light. Compared with the past five years, the crop affected areas, the number of dead and missing persons and the direct economic losses were significantly less.

National average temperature anomaly distribution in 2018

In 2018, the average temperature of the whole country was 0.54℃ higher than normal (climatology of 1981-2010). The temperature in spring and summer reached a record high, while the temperature in autumn and winter was close to the normal. The annual precipitation in China was 673.8mm, which was 7% above normal. The seasonal precipitation in winter was 17% below normal, and near normal in spring, but 10% and 6% above normal in summer and autumn respectively. The annual precipitation in all the six administrative regions of China was above or near normal. The annual precipitation was near or above normal in the seven basins, except for the Liaohe River Basin with 11% below normal.

National precipitation distribution in 2018

In 2018, the first rainy season in South China started later and ended earlier than normal with deficient precipitation and a short rainy period. The dates of beginning and end of the rainy season in Southwest China were close to the climatological dates with more heavy precipitation. The Meiyu started later and ended earlier than normal with less precipitation during the rainy period. The rainy season in North China started earlier and ended earlier than normal with more rainfall. The autumn rain in West China started and ended late, with less rainfall. The dates of start and end of the rainy season in Northeast China were near normal with less rainfall during the rainy period.

In 2018, the numbers of generated and landed typhoons were more than normal, feathered northward landing locations and severe disaster damage. Low-temperature freezing and snow disasters occurred frequently, with heavy losses in China. Storm rainy process occurred frequently but caused less meteorological disasters in summer. The numbers of high-temperature-day were more than normal, and there were strong extreme high temperature events in Northeast China as well as central and eastern regions of China. Obvious regional and periodic drought brought slight impacts and losses. Severe convective weather processes were relatively less and brought about light economic losses. The northern China experienced fewer sandstorms in spring, but haze events occurred occasionally and distinctly influenced on air quality and human health.

The State of Greenhouse Gases in the AtmosphereBased on Chinese and Global Observations before 2017.

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Greenhouse Gas Bulletin (2017) No. 14 released by WMO on 22November 2017 shows that globally averaged mole fractions in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) continued to hit new highs in 2017, with CO2 at 405.5 ±0.1[1]ppm [2], CH4 at 1859 ±2ppbppb[3] and N2O at 329.9 ±0.1 ppb. These values constitute 146%, 257% and 122% of pre-industrial (before 1750) levels.

As analyzed from observational data at the Waliguan station in Qinghai through 2017, averaged mole fractions in atmospheric CO2, CH4 and N2O also hit new highs, registering 407.0±0.2 ppm for CO2, 1912 ± 2 ppb for CH4 and 330.3 ±0.1 ppb for N2O. As a record high since the observation wasstarted in 1990, they are roughly equivalent to the averaged mole fractions in the northern mid-latitudes, but are slightly higher than the global averages in all these components over the same period. Global mole fractions in atmospheric CO2, CH4 and N2O increased by 2.2 ppm, 7 ppb and 0.9 ppb in absolute terms, from 2016 to 2017, while those at Waliguanby 2.6 ppm, 5 ppb and 0.6 ppb. Global annual averages in atmospheric CO2, CH4 and N2O over the past 10 years increased by 2.24 ppm, 6.9 ppb and 0.93 ppb in absolute terms, while those at Waliguan2.28 ppm, 7.0 ppb and 0.92 ppb.

The full text of 2017 Greenhouse Gas Bulletin ↓: