The National Hydrological Forecasting Centre of the National Meteorological Centre (NMC) provides crucial hydro-meteorological services at a national level. These services originated from the hydro-meteorological servicesin response to the devastating floods that occurred in 1998 in the Yangtze River, Nen River, and Songhua River basins. The services were officially launched in 2002 with the surface rainfall estimation and forecasting of the seven major river basins. Starting from 2003, based on the relevant agreements jointly signed by the Ministry of Land and Resources and China Meteorological Administration (CMA), the service of geological disaster meteorological forecasting and warning during the flood season was officially launched. In 2006, NMC issued formally the flood and waterlogging disaster meteorological risk warning to better provide meteorological services for preventing and controlling farmland and urban waterlogging. In 2015, the Ministry of Water Resources and CMA jointly released the flash flood disaster meteorological warning. In2016, the flood risk warning product for small and medium-sized rivers was officially introduced.
The hydro-meteorological forecasting and warning service for river basins aims to provide risk-based meteorological warnings for disasters such as floods, flash floods, and geological hazards caused by precipitation, based on impact forecast and risk warning concepts. The service has established a national-river-provincial-city-county level meteorological disaster risk warning service system, which effectively supports hydro-meteorological services for the seven major river basins, small and medium-sizedriver basins, and the national disaster prevention and reduction system.
At present, the hydro-meteorological forecasting techniques of NMC rely mainly on independently developed statistical-based threshold models for disaster risk assessment and distributed hydrological models. These techniques are built on a seamless intelligent grid forecasting system that utilizes big data analysis and artificial intelligence technologies to create a meteorology-hydrology-geology coupled forecasting model. Starting in 2019, NMC established a comprehensive analysis and consultation support platform to meet operational requirements better. This platform is continuously upgraded and improved to serve better the integrated and intelligent hydro-meteorological forecasting and warning services for river basins.