On August 3, China Meteorological Administration (CMA) rolled out Blue Book on Climate Change of China 2022 (hereafter referred to as the Blue Book), which provides the latest monitoring information of the climate change status of China and the whole world from the aspect of atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere. The Blue Book shows that global warming is continuing, and many climate change indicators like average surface temperature, coastal sea level, and permafrost layer density in China in 2021 have broken records.
The Blue Book shows that the global average temperature in 2021 is 1.11℃ higher than that in pre-industrial levels (the average figure between 1850 and 1900). It is the 7th warmest year since meteorological observation record exists. The warming rate in China is remarkably faster than the global average level in the same period. From 1951 to 2021, the average annual surface temperature in China has increased by 0.26 ° C every decade, and the average surface temperature in 2021 has become the highest since 1901. From 1961 to 2021, the average annual precipitation in China shows an increasing trend.
China's extreme weather and climate events such as high temperature and strong precipitation have become more frequent and stronger. From 1961 to 2021, extreme heavy precipitation events are mounting in China. Since the late 1990s, extreme high temperature events have increased significantly, and the average intensity fluctuation of typhoons making landfall in China has augmented.
According to the Blue Book, ocean warming has accelerated since the late 1980s and the global average sea level has continued to rise. Global ocean heat content (upper 2000m) reaches a new high in 2021, and global mean sea level reaches the highest level since satellite observations began. The sea level change along the coast of China is on wavelike rise in general. In 2021, the sea level along the coast of China is the highest since 1980.
The global glacier is in a state of retreat as a whole, and the retreat has accelerated since the mid-1980s. The extent of Arctic sea ice is decreasing markedly. From 1979 to 2015, the extent of Antarctic sea ice has been on wavelike increase. However, since 2016, the extent of Antarctic sea ice has been small on the whole.
The overall vegetation cover in China has increased steadily and showed a greening trend. From 2000 to 2021, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in China has showed a significant upward trend, and the average NDVI in 2021 is the highest since 2000.
In terms of the driving factors of climate change, the average annual total radiation in China shows a dwindling trend.
Since 2011, CMA has started to release this annual document.
Editor: Liu Shuqiao