Meteorological research institutes are the main force in promoting scientific and technological innovation in meteorological services, including national level research institutes, provincial research institutes, and new research and development institutions. Among them, there are 9 national research institutes, including China Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) and 8 professional meteorological research institutes, namely, Beijing Urban Meteorological Research Institute, Shenyang Institute of Atmospheric Environment, Shanghai Typhoon Research Institute, Wuhan Institute of Heavy Rain, Guangzhou Institute of Tropical Marine Meteorology, Qinghai Tibet Plateau Meteorological Research Institute, Lanzhou Institute of Arid Meteorology, and Urumqi Institute of Desert Meteorology. There are 22 provincial-level scientific research centers, distributed in provincial (autonomous region, city level) meteorological services that are not regional meteorological centers. The new research and development institutions include Shenzhen Meteorological Innovation Research Institute, Nanjing Joint Institute for Atmospheric Sciences, Qingdao Institute of Ocean Meteorology, and Asia Pacific Typhoon Research Center.
CAMS is a comprehensive research institution that holds a leading position in meteorological sciences. With the aim to supporting meteorological operational services, it focuses on the basic research, the applied research and forward-looking technical research and endeavors to explore the key technical hurdles. It also undertakes theoretical research and technological innovation in meteorology to address the forefront of meteorological science and technology. Each professional meteorological research institute mainly highlights its professional characteristics, and is a national center for scientific and technological innovation and a talent highland in its own advantageous professional field, hence making contributions to the development of national operations. Meanwhile, each professional research institute takes the lead in addressing key scientific and technological issues in the meteorological operation of the respective region so as to improve its technological support capabilities for the operational development of the region. As for provincial research institutes, they mainly play a supporting role in the core meteorological operation of the province. They are also expected to conduct applied research and technological development in such fields of their own characteristics and to undertake the application and transformation of national- and regional-level science and technology achievements. The study fields of national research institutes mainly include disastrous weather (such as typhoon, rainstorm, lightning, and drought), advantageous disciplines (such as eco-meteorology, agrometeorology, environmental meteorology, urban meteorology, marine meteorology, plateau meteorology, desert meteorology, and climate change) as well as core technologies (e.g. professional numerical prediction). The research fields of provincial-level research institutes mainly include disaster weather, NWP model interpretation, environmental meteorology, marine meteorology, traffic meteorology, weather modification, and climate change. In the future, new research and development institutions will be established in new tracks such as meteorological artificial intelligence and the application of quantum technology in meteorology.